I-6: Use a functional assessment approach (e.g., performance diagnostics) to identify variables affecting personnel performance. ©
Important note: Fictionalized clients are used to demonstrate the skill items in the second half of the task list, sections F-I. They make the most sense when read in order. Please remember that there is not substitute for real-life supervision and consultation. Get your case-specific advice from professionals – not from the internet! These examples are just that – examples of how behavior analytic skills might be applied.
Case example: Jada is an elementary school student. She experiences Level 3 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Level 3 is the severity level of Autism which is characterized by “requiring very substantial support.” Jada has also been diagnosed with a severe Intellectual Disability (ID). Jada has just transferred to a private school for individuals with global needs. She loves all kinds of play and messy activities, such as finger paint and water play. She also enjoys swinging on the playground, eating popcorn, and watching Disney movies. She loves to be read to, and laughs when staff make dramatic gestures while reading picture books. Jada does not use any vocal speech. She makes noises sometimes, such as humming. Jada engages in motor stimming, including upper body tensing and flapping her arms. Jada engages in severe challenging behavior, including self injury (hand to head and head to surface) and aggression (including hitting and biting). Jada has a mom, dad, and older brother living together in one home. Jada’s family has advocated for her to attend a private program, and they are excited for her to get high quality services. Jada’s new behavior analyst is Dr. Brown-Davis, who is a BCBA-D employed by the private program.
Example of Item I-6: Dr. Brown-Davis knows that the laws of behavior apply to staff behavior, just as they do to client behavior. When there is a performance concern with a staff member’s skill in a particular area (for example, fidelity dropping below 80 percent, program not being run, etc), Dr. Brown-Davis approaches the problem with a curiosity about the antecedents, behaviors, and consequences relevant to the performance concern. In this way, he is able to understand the circumstances related to the challenge, and can provide environmental modifications to support desired skills.
Case example: Donovan is a high school student. He has been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). He attends a public school and has been placed in a support program for students with social/emotional/behavioral needs. Donovan enjoys playing video games and drawing in his sketchbook. He would like to be a welder when he is an adult. Academic achievement and attendance have been challenges for Donovan historically, and he is currently not on track to graduate with his peers due to missed work and failing grades in several classes. Donovan’s team has identified challenges including frequent non-attendance to school, walking the halls during class times, non-attendance at expected guidance appointments, and non-completion of classwork. Donovan lives with his mother and older brother. Donovan’s mother is concerned about her son’s school challenges and expresses frustration about his “lack of commitment” to his education. She wants Donovan to understand how important it is to graduate from high school. Donovan’s behavior analyst is Ms. Bailey, who has just started contracting with Donovan’s school district through the agency she works for.
Example of Item I-6: Ms. Bailey approaches supervision with her new supervisee, Mandy, using a behavior analytic framework. Ms. Bailey explicitly communicates that she and Mandy should “think like behavior analysts” when interacting with each others, in addition to clients. When there is a performance concern from Mandy (for example, when Mandy does not attend a school consultation meeting with Donovan’s teacher), Ms. Bailey uses a behavior analytic problem solving approach to understand the relevant variables. As a behavior analyst, Ms. Bailey does not frame problems as residing within people themselves. For example, she states, “Mandy did not attend a scheduled meeting.” She does not say, “Mandy is lazy,” or “Mandy is unprofessional.” She also does not make assumptions, such as “Mandy probably doesn’t like Donovan.”